Kokabu - a hybrid of Far Eastern and lettuce turnips, varieties and agricultural technology

Kokabu - a hybrid of Far Eastern and lettuce turnips, varieties and agricultural technology

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The path of the white turnip - through Japan to our beds

We have forgotten our primordially Russian vegetable culture - the turnip. Only the expression "Easier than a steamed turnip" remained from her. Do not plant it in gardens. And they don't eat. But sweet, aromatic. Perhaps the reason lies in the mustard oils, which are found in root vegetables. It is not recommended for people who have thyroid problems.

The Japanese have long ago solved this problem. They crossed Far Eastern turnips and salad. And we got a new variety of turnips for salad purposes called "kabu", in which these very mustard oils are practically absent. In fact, it is a relative of our turnip.

They added the prefix "ko" to the name of this turnip, which means "small." Turnip turned out "Kokabu", i.e. kaboo with small roots. In early ripening varieties, the size of the root crop does not exceed 8 cm.

Kabu is a very early ripening culture: the root crop is formed in 40–45 days! The value of this turnip is that not only roots but also leaves are edible in it. They are tender, juicy, without pubescence, typical for the leaves of our Petrovskaya turnip variety. The Japanese eat these leaves all year round, which are packed with nutrients. They are eaten both fresh and salted. Root vegetables are also good in raw, boiled, salted forms.

Relatively recently, our scientists - breeders from VNIISSOK - created the first domestic grade of turnip for salad purposes, it is called Geisha. Variety Geisha successfully passed variety trials. It is a cold-resistant variety with a friendly yield formation. It is distinguished by excellent early maturity (the period from germination to harvesting - 45-60 days) and resistance to stalking. His root crops are as juicy and tender as those of Japanese varieties. The diameter of the root crop is 4–5 cm, weight is 50–60 g. The skin is thin, smooth. The pulp is white, firm, very juicy. It contains a lot of vitamins, trace elements, minerals, they are sweet, without coarse fibers and mustard oils. The leaves contain a lot of iron, a lot of vitamin C. Since the variety was bred specifically with edible leaves, the leaves of the plants are very large, there are many of them.

This variety has one more advantage: great shade tolerance. This allows you to grow it in low light conditions, for example, on a windowsill. True, it is not a root crop that can be grown on the windowsill, but only leaves. Lettuce turnip leaves contain increased amounts of vitamin C - 70–80 mg% per 100 g of raw material, ie. they may well compete for this vitamin with bell peppers. There is a lot of carotene in the leaves. Thus, for the Geisha turnip, not only the roots, but also the tops go into business. However, the roots are in the summer. And in winter we will try to grow leaves.

In late January - early February, you can sow seeds into the ground to a depth of 0.5 cm. The sowing pattern is 5x5 cm. The land can be used exactly the same as for peppers or tomatoes, i.e. non-acidic and fertile. The crops must be covered with glass or foil. Seeds sprout quickly at room temperature. After that, the shelter must be removed immediately. The seedlings grow very quickly, much faster than regular lettuce. To do this, they need additional lighting, for example, a 40-watt fluorescent lamp. Care is the simplest: watering so that the earth does not dry out. After 25-30 days, rosettes of the most delicate leaves are formed. You can harvest.

Turnip leaves go well with other vegetables in salads. If there are too many of them, then you can make a salad only from them: chop, lightly salt and season with garlic dressing or mayonnaise, sour cream, vegetable oil.

White turnip varieties of later ripening periods and excellent taste for outdoor cultivation have appeared. They eat root vegetables.

Variety White Night - produces leveled root crops with a diameter of 10–12 cm, weighing 500–800 g. Like all turnips, they are shallowly submerged in the soil. Ripen 70–72 days after germination.

Variety Orbit - for winter storage. Root crops 400-500 g, ripen in 110-120 days.

Growing white turnips requires the same conditions as for our regular turnip. The most suitable are sandy loam and loamy soils, rich in humus, with a groundwater level of at least 0.9 m.On acidic soils, like all cruciferous soils, it can get sick with keel. Turnip fails in freshly fertilized areas: root crops of an ugly shape are obtained. Grows well after cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes, herbs. There is a great way to grow this turnip: sow it between potato bushes after hilling. She easily tolerates the shade of potato bushes, so in the fall, when we dig potatoes, we will find, to our great joy, amazingly beautiful turnip roots.

For summer consumption, seeds are sown in early spring, for winter storage - in summer, after Petrov's day (July 12). Since the turnip is a long-day plant, with a cold, lingering spring and a too long day, it can go to the arrow and not give a root crop. Therefore, in the spring it must be sown as early as possible. Her seeds begin to germinate at 2 ... 3 ° C. At 18 ... 20 ° C, they emerge on the fifth day.

The soil is prepared in advance. For digging, a small amount of well-rotted organic matter is introduced - half a bucket per square meter of area, as well as mineral fertilizers - according to the instructions for them.

The seeds are planted to a depth of 1.5–2 cm. After 3-4 true leaves appear, the plants are thinned out so that a distance of 15 cm remains between them.

Plant care is usual: watering in dry weather, loosening the soil, removing weeds. Turnip is very responsive to fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. With a lack of nutrition, root crops of poor quality grow: skinny, tough and tasteless.

Lyubov Bobrovskaya

The recommended list of dissertations in the specialty "Breeding and seed production", 06.01.05 code VAK

Scientific substantiation of methods for realizing the productive potential of vegetable crops with high adaptability to the conditions of the Central region of Russia 2010, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Sychev, Sergei Mikhailovich

Introduction of daikon and loba in a zone of unstable moisture in the Stavropol Territory 2000, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Voloschenko, Vitaly Sergeevich

Selection and study of initial samples for breeding daikon and loba in the Lower Volga region 2002, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Zemskova, Yulia Kabdullaevna

Agroecological substantiation of cultivation and mineral nutrition of daikon, loba in the conditions of South Kazakhstan 2005, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Akhmetova, Farida Serikbaevna

Scientific substantiation of the development and use of innovative methods in breeding and seed production of vegetable crops: Allium L., Raphanus L., Brassica L., Beta L. 2007, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Startsev, Viktor Ivanovich

Root and tuberous plants

The group of root and tuberous plants is formed by vegetable crops from 7 families - Astrovye, Bindweed, Cruciferous, Marevye, Solanaceous, Celery, Lamb. They have different economic significance, but they are all important and useful in the diet of a healthy person.

The most important representative of this group, especially in our country, is the potato. Its indispensability in Russian cuisine is reflected in the well-known Russian proverb: "Potatoes are the second bread." Despite the fact that the history of winning popular love in Russia was not so simple for potatoes, today potatoes are one of the main crops for industrial and individual cultivation. For more than a century, potatoes have occupied one of the most important places on our table. It is used boiled, fried, baked as an independent dish or as a component of various salads, first and second courses (as a side dish), and is also used to make chips.

A rich set of vitamins, essential amino acids and mineral salts, a significant amount of carbohydrates make potatoes a valuable food and dietary product. Potatoes, both fresh and boiled, as well as freshly prepared potato juice, prevent and treat many diseases.

Carrots in Russia are one of the main vegetable crops. It is cultivated wherever open field vegetable growing is possible. Its roots contain a whole palette of vitamins, trace elements and mineral salts. Carrots are useful raw and boiled, canned and dried. In addition to root vegetables, fresh leaves (in soups, sauces, etc.) and fruits with a burning spicy taste can be used for food. The fruits are added as a seasoning to various dishes, used in marinades, distillery, and fish processing.

Beet, which is also grown almost everywhere, is no less beloved in our country. Beets are unique in terms of the content of biologically and physiologically active substances, the calorie content of their roots is very high. They contain proteins, fats, fiber, pectins, sugars, organic acids, many vitamins and mineral salts and trace elements.

Root crops and young leaves are used for food (they contain twice as much vitamin C as in root crops) in fresh, boiled, canned, dried and dried form.

Turnip is an ancient vegetable culture, the history of which is about 4 thousand years old. Before the appearance of potatoes in Russia, common turnip was one of the main vegetable crops grown in gardens. The greatest variety of its forms is found in Western Europe and Asia. In modern Russia, turnips are mainly grown on personal plots. Turnip is eaten raw, boiled, fried, stewed, stuffed and baked all year round, since its roots are very well stored all winter.

Less often, lettuce turnip (kokabu), which is a close relative of the garden turnip, is found on household plots. A distinctive feature of lettuce turnip is that not only its roots, but also its leaves are used for food. Root vegetables kokabu are eaten raw, boiled and salted. They are juicier and sweeter than common turnips, and lack the specific rare taste. A variety of lettuce turnip - leafy turnip - does not form a root crop at all, its thin, delicate leaves, which have a rich set of nutrients, salts and vitamins, are eaten.

Even in ancient times, leaf celery was cultivated as a spice and medicinal plant, and it was only in the 16th century that the root variety of this culture was bred. In Russia, mainly root and leaf celery is grown, both in open and protected ground, and petiole varieties are cultivated rarely and in small quantities. Celery is a very valuable aromatic plant with a specific pleasant smell due to the high content of sedanolide essential oil. Celery is used to prepare the first and second courses, casseroles, sauces, seasonings are added when pickling, salting and canning tomatoes, cucumbers, mushrooms. Dry and freeze the leaves, chopped root crops and petioles.

This group of vegetable plants also includes the familiar rutabaga and daikon, parsnips and radishes, scorzoner and Jerusalem artichoke. And also plants that are not so popular in our country - such as oat root, stachis, yacon, sweet potato.

Introduction of the thesis (part of the abstract) on the topic "Scientific substantiation of the development and use of innovative methods in breeding and seed production of vegetable crops: Allium L., Raphanus L., Brassica L., Beta L."

The success of breeding work, wrote N.I. As far back as 1934 (1987), Vavilov is known to be largely determined by the source material. And in the first place, he put research on local material, which should be the basis of breeding work. Didn't rule out N.I. Vavilov and the method of hybridization as a means of accelerating the breeding process. Emphasizing that hybridization within the same species is the main breeding method with many crops, he emphasized the need for a specific pairing plan for crossing, based on genetic expediency. At the same time N.I. Vavilov saw great prospects in distant - interspecific and intergeneric hybridization, if methods for obtaining practically valuable forms were developed. Comprehensive attention, he wrote, should be given to the selection of the appropriate biotypes that give the best combinations, using the method of backcrossing in appropriate cases. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization should be carried out with the obligatory cooperation of the work of the breeder, geneticist and cytologist.

The most difficult section of modern breeding was called N.I. Vavilov work with cross-pollinators. This section, he wrote, needs immediate methodological development at various objects, because the specificity in this respect is often of decisive importance. The cumbersome scheme of diallelic crosses, he believed, needed to be reworked in relation to the needs of practical breeding. The inzukhta method, noted N.I. Vavilov, can be used not only to obtain homozygous forms, but also to identify new valuable traits.

Modern selection, wrote N.I. Vavilov, called upon to give new valuable forms in the shortest possible time, should be armed not only with the methods of genetics, not only with a broad approach to the initial material, but also with the help of physiology, biochemistry, technology, phytopathology and entomology. Breeding for quality and chemical composition should be advanced to one of the first stages in every possible way.

Back in the 30s of the XX century N.I. Vavilov raised the question of the need to study the discreteness of heredity in combination with the study of the genotype as an integral system.

In the process of phylogenesis, plants have developed a certain relationship between characters, which characterizes the plant organism as an integral, balanced system. Deviations in the development of some signs usually entail changes in others. Therefore, for successful breeding work, knowledge about the relationship between the main morphological, biological and economically valuable traits is important, which allows selection for complex physiological, biochemical and other properties that largely determine the value of the variety.

Research on the search for new types of CMS is necessary for solving various fundamental and applied problems of breeding and agricultural production, such as the development of new sterile lines used for the production of hybrids and the creation of polymorphism of CMS types and overcoming the cytoplasmic uniformity of cultivated hybrids, which carries a potential threat of epiphytoties. Cytoplasmic genes of some types of sterile cytoplasms are involved in the genetic control of many important traits, such as resistance to pathogens and abiotic environmental factors, productivity, combining ability, mutability, parthenogenesis, etc. (Elkonin JI.A., Tyrnov B.C., 2000).

It is quite obvious that in breeding and seed production it is necessary to maximally use the mechanisms of adaptation of vegetable crops to all kinds of stressors, which makes it possible to obtain new varieties and heterotic hybrids with fundamentally new economically valuable traits.

The problem of developing a system of a directed, effective breeding process is considered in the works of prominent domestic and foreign researchers. These are the works of B.V. Kvasnikova (1980), A.B. Kryuchkov (1985), V.G. Konareva (1993), V.F. Pivovarova (1995, 2000, 2002), G.B. Boos (1980, 1985), Yu.L. Guzhova (1977, 1984), E.A. Goncharova (2004), V.A. Dragavtsev (1999, 2003), V.I. Burenin (1974, 1983, 2002), L.Kh. Bailey (1922, 1930), R.H. Ellis (1980), A.A. Powell and S. Matthews (1981,1985).

Developing the theory of selection identification of genotypes by phenotypes at the early stages of selection, V.A. Dragavtsev (2005) identified the paths of a directed breeding process. A.B. made a significant contribution to the development of domestic breeding. Kryuchkov (1977), who developed a harmonious method for obtaining four-line heterotic cabbage hybrids based on self-incompatibility. Currently, there is a need for an integrated approach to the breeding process, taking into account the maximum possible number of factors affecting the final result.

As you know, the innovation process is a single and continuous stream of transformation of specific biological, technical, environmental, economic ideas on the basis of scientific developments into new technologies or its individual constituent parts (methods) and bringing them to use directly in production in order to obtain qualitatively new products. In vegetable breeding, these are varieties and heterotic hybrids, which are also an innovation.

In this regard, there is an urgent need to substantiate and develop a methodology for the development and use of innovative methods in the selection and seed production of vegetable crops.

The following basic provisions are put forward for defense: methodology and innovative methods for obtaining the initial material and selection of isolated genetic sources of single-seededness and cytoplasmic male sterility in canteen beets, with resistance to abiotic and biotic stressors and product quality in cabbage crops, express methods and resource-saving elements of vegetable seed production technology crops to improve the efficiency of selection and reproduction of the source material, to conduct primary and commercial seed production in certain ecological and geographical conditions, scientific and practical results obtained on the basis of the use of the developed assessment and selection methods, fundamentally new varieties and initial lines for creating heterotic hybrids of vegetable crops.

1. Methodological foundations for the development and use of innovative methods in the selection and seed production of vegetable crops

Watch the video: Turnips: Three Tips to Growing Them to a Good Size: Loose Soil, Low Nitrogen, Spacing -TRG 2016