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Myrtle

Myrtle


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The plant myrtle (Myrtus) belongs to the genus of evergreen shrubs and trees of the Myrtle family, which includes several dozen different species. It grows in North Africa, Western Asia, the Caribbean, Florida, the Azores and Europe, preferring the warmest corners. Myrtle translated from Greek means "balm".

Description of myrtle

Myrtle is usually a short evergreen tree or bush. Its leathery foliage is located opposite to the branches. Each plate has a series of glands that secrete aromatic essential oils. Fragrant flowers can appear from the leaf sinuses, from which short inflorescences-brushes sometimes form. Later, edible berries appear in their place.

Myrtle is appreciated not only by flower growers: such plants have a lot of useful properties. The essential oil, which is contained in the stems and leaves of such a bush, is used in medicine, as well as for the manufacture of incense and perfume compositions. Even the name of the genus itself is translated as "balm". Dried leaves or fruits of myrtle sometimes act as spices.

Myrtle itself is revered in many countries as a symbol of peace, love and bliss. Wreaths and bouquets are made from it. A myrtle gift is given to brides, so the plant was named “Bride's Tree”. The myrtle tree is also called the “Tree of family prosperity and happiness”, which personifies a friendly and strong family.

Features of the myrtle tree

When buying myrtle, you need to understand that the plant has a pronounced dormant period. This means that you need to look after in summer and winter differently. Because of this feature, myrtle can be found in different places depending on the temperature in the house and the time of year. The most favorable time for a plant is summer. Myrtle is very fond of fresh air, so the plant can even be dug into the ground with the pot, for example, in the garden. Before digging in, you need to think and decide on the place where it will grow.

Myrtle is in great demand among flower lovers. But quite often, when growing at home, various problems occur. For example, a plant sheds its leaves. This may be due to incorrect content. Caring for indoor myrtle is quite simple, but still has its own nuances.

Myrtle.Features of caring for the myrtle tree

Brief rules for growing myrtle

The table shows brief rules for caring for myrtle at home.

Lighting levelRequires moderately bright, diffused light.
Content temperatureIn the warm season, about 18-20 degrees. In winter, a cool wintering is preferable - no more than 10-12 degrees.
Watering modeFrom the beginning of growth until the end of summer, as the top layer of the soil dries out. If myrtle hibernates in a cold room, it should be watered rarely and little by little. At the same time, it is impossible to overdry the earth.
Air humidityIt is necessary to regularly moisten the foliage with lukewarm water. In winter, the bush is not sprayed.
The soilThe optimal soil is a mixture of peat with clay, humus, turf and half of the sand. You can also use an equal mixture of sand, humus, turf and peat.
Top dressingWeekly during the warm season. Mineral formulations are used. In winter, feeding is not carried out.
TransferYoung bushes are transplanted annually, adult plants - every 2-3 years.
PruningThe formation of the crown is done in early spring.
BloomFlowering occurs in early summer.
Dormant periodThe dormant period occurs in the winter, but the duration depends on the placement of the plant. On the north side, it can last about 3 months, on the south - about 1.5 months.
ReproductionSeed, cuttings.
PestsSpider mite, whitefly, thrips, scale insects, scale insects.
DiseasesDiseases are most often caused by improper watering or insufficient moisture levels.

The myrtle plant has a number of valuable properties and perfectly disinfects the air.

Caring for myrtle at home

Growing myrtle at home is not too difficult, although the plant will need to create certain conditions. If you take proper care of myrtle, it will not only look elegant, but also fill the air with valuable phytoncides.

Lighting

Myrth needs a large amount of light, but it must be scattered. The plant should be shaded from direct sunlight during the hot season. If you want to get flowers from a plant, then you need to take into account that the myrtle should be in a well-lit place.

If myrtle grows in a room on a windowsill, then the western and eastern windows will be the best option. On the south side, the plant can get sunburn. The north side will make the flowering more scarce: the flowers will be faded and will quickly disappear. It can also be noted that the light acts on the myrtle as a signal to awakening.

In winter, you need to give the plant as much light as possible. If the myrtle stands on the south side, then the dormant period will last only a month, if on the north - 3 months. If you had to change a permanent place, then this should be done gradually. Indeed, in a different place, the level of light will be different. Myrtle can lose light or, on the contrary, receive its surplus, so you need to approach the rearrangement of the tree carefully and gradually. The plant does not like a sharp change in location. It is worth starting with the fact that little by little the myrtle can be placed a little further from the window, so it will quickly get used to the new conditions of detention.

In the summer, you can take the myrtle pot outside or on the balcony. Sometimes the plant is dropped into the garden along with the pot, choosing a place sheltered from the scorching midday sun. At the same time, the plant must be taught to change the lighting mode gradually.

Temperature

From spring to late summer, myrtle requires a moderately warm room temperature. In general, the plant loves coolness and does not like heat. The most favorable air temperature is 18-20 degrees. To make the flower stay in the house more comfortable, the room with it is regularly ventilated.

In winter, it is better to move the myrtle tree to a cool room. The optimal temperature is considered to be about 6-8 degrees, but warming up to 10-12 degrees is also acceptable. Under such conditions, myrtle will bloom profusely in summer. You can, of course, arrange the wintering of the plant at room temperature, but in this case, you will need abundant watering and constant spraying.

With warm and dry air in winter, myrtle leaves often fall off, although you should not despair. If you continue to water the tree moderately, it will turn green again in the spring, but the myrtle will most likely not bloom after a warm winter.

Watering

Myrtle can only be watered with soft water, which has stood for at least a day. From spring until the beginning of the dormant period, it is necessary to water the plant as the upper soil layer dries up. If the myrtle spends the winter in a cool room, the irrigation regime is significantly changed. It is necessary to moisten the substrate much less frequently. At the same time, it is impossible to overdry the earth in the same way as to allow stagnation of liquid in the soil. If the soil lump is still dry, it is necessary to immerse the pot of myrtle in water and wait until it regains the necessary fluid balance.

Regardless of the season - there should always be moist soil in the pot. At the same time, care must be taken that the water does not stagnate in the pot.

Humidity level

Myrtle needs to be kept high in humidity. In the warm season, foliage is regularly moistened by spraying with soft, well-settled water. By the end of autumn, when the myrtle is transferred to a cool room, the spraying is stopped.

The soil

Several types of mixtures can be used as a primer. The first can include turf, humus and clay with the addition of half of the sand. For the second, equal proportions of sand, turf, peat and humus are taken. Greenhouse land can also be used.

Top dressing

From spring to autumn, myrtle needs to be fed every week. Depending on what kind of tree you want to get and the top dressing is selected. If you want the plant to please with its flowering, you need to use a fertilizer with a high level of phosphorus. If you like a miniature decorative tree, it is better to use nitrogen fertilizers. In general, you can use conventional liquid compound fertilizers for ornamental foliage plants.

Transfer

The growth rate of myrtle allows it to gain full strength by the second year of life. Because of this, small plants need more frequent, annual replanting. Mature bushes are moved less often 2 or 3 times.

The pot for planting should be commensurate with the volume of the plant's root system. You can also navigate the width of the crown by choosing a pot that is half the size. When moving a bush to a new container, it is important to maintain the same level of penetration. Otherwise, the root collar of the bush may begin to rot. A drainage layer must be placed on the bottom of the container.

Pruning

Myrtle has a fast growth rate, so it requires regular crown formation. Appropriate pruning is done in the spring. Without this procedure, the plant will acquire a pyramidal shape. If you cut off the side shoots of the myrtle, you can form a small tree out of it, and removing the upper branches will turn it into a bush.

The myrtle tree is made from such plants that it easily lends itself to defragmentation. It can always be cut in different ways and thereby give a unique look. But it's important not to overdo it. Too frequent pruning of the lateral branches of young myrtle is considered harmful to the plant. Its trunk may not yet have sufficient strength to support a lush crown. Therefore, you need to wait until the tree gets stronger, and only then engage in pruning and crown formation.

Small pinches of young shoots can be carried out throughout the year. But you should not get carried away with this procedure: too frequent pinching can have a bad effect on flowering.

CUTTING MYRTH AT HOME IS EASY. EXOTIC WINDOWSILL

Dormant period

Summer and winter care for myrtle differs significantly. In addition to the coolness during the dormant period, the bush should be provided with a sufficient amount of light. The resting time of the myrtle tree directly depends on the location of the pot. In darker corners on the north side, the plant can rest for about 3 months. On light southern windows, the dormant period can be almost 2 times shorter. Correct maintenance at this time will have a positive effect on the health of the plant and the abundance of its subsequent flowering.

If the myrtle remains to winter in a warm room, the bush must be watered and its leaves moistened in the same mode. In this case, the plant will most likely begin to shed some of the foliage. In the spring, the leaf blades will grow back, but flowering after such a wintering may not come.

Is myrtle poisonous?

Despite the high benefits of the plant, the foliage of myrtle used for the preparation of folk remedies contains a certain amount of toxic substances. In sensitive people or children, it can cause nausea or headaches, and cause dermatitis or irritation. For these reasons, self-medication is not worth it.

Sometimes dried myrtle leaves are added to tea in small quantities. The fruits are considered edible, but they have a specific and tart taste. In addition, you should not eat berries or leaves of a plant that has been treated with chemicals.

Myrtle breeding methods

Growing from seeds

A mixture of peat with sand or any other baking powder is used as a planting substrate for seed propagation. Before sowing, it is watered with water, and then additionally moistened with a fungicide solution. Myrtle seeds are sown superficially. You can only lightly sprinkle them with a thin layer of the same soil. The crops are covered with foil and placed in moderate heat (about 19 degrees). They need to be ventilated regularly.

The first shoots should appear within two weeks. After the formation of the first full-fledged leaves, they dive into their own pots. In this case, a mixture of peat, turf and humus with sand is already used as a soil. Such a pick can slightly slow down the growth rate of seedlings, but then they will begin to actively gain green mass.

As soon as the young bushes outgrow their pots, they are transferred into more spacious containers. From this period on, the seedlings of myrtle are looked after as full-fledged adult bushes. Such plants begin to bloom only in the 5th year of life. However, they may not preserve the varietal characteristics of the mother bush.

Cuttings

You can propagate myrtle by cuttings twice a year: in July and also in January. Usually, for this, slightly woody cuttings from 5 to 8 cm long are chosen. They should be taken from the lower or central part of the bush. Most of the foliage from the cuttings is removed, and the remaining plates are shortened. This method allows you to reduce the level of moisture evaporation.

Before planting, the cuttings can be additionally treated with a growth stimulant. The prepared material is planted in a shallow container filled with a mixture of sand and leafy soil. After that, the seedlings are covered with a film or a transparent jar and placed in a shady place, where they keep about 20 degrees. It takes from 3 weeks to a month to root such cuttings. After the roots are formed on the seedlings, they can be transplanted into pots with a diameter of about 7 cm. They are filled with a substrate that includes turf, sand, humus and peat. When the seedlings outgrow these containers, they are moved to slightly larger ones.

Myrtle, obtained from cuttings, begins to bloom in the 3rd or 4th year of life. To stimulate it, the plant must receive enough water. Correct timely pinching will also help.

The easiest and most reliable way to reproduce MIRTA.

Diseases and pests

Constant warmth reduces the myrtle's immunity. In such conditions, pests can settle on the bush. Among them are thrips, mealybugs, whiteflies, scale insects, and with dry air and insufficient moisture, a spider mite.

The scale insect is practically invisible at an early stage, but it multiplies rapidly, covering the stems and leaves with dark spots. The scabbard is removed with a damp swab, but it is still necessary to treat the entire plant with insecticide or soapy water.

Aphids often settle on the underside of the leaf and feed on the sap of the plant, which causes the leaves to dry out and curl up. Aphids are destroyed by insecticidal agents.

The spider mite appears on the underside of the leaves and envelops them with thin white cobwebs. It is destroyed by spraying and washing the leaves, especially from the underside, with water or a weak tobacco infusion. It can also be treated with ready-made universal insecticides.

Difficulties in growing myrtle

Myrtle leaves turn yellow or curl

This could be caused by improper lighting. With a lack of light, its foliage begins to shrink, and the shoots themselves become more elongated. If the bush is lit too much, the foliage begins to turn yellow and curl. Flying around can be caused by excessively high room temperatures combined with insufficient lighting.

Myrtle leaves fall

Overdrying of the substrate may be the cause. If it was not possible to prevent the complete drying of the soil, such a plant must be looked after especially carefully, watered more often, and also sprayed regularly. At the same time, some growers cut the branches of the bush by about half. Fresh foliage should appear on them in a couple of weeks. If the myrtle is sick due to waterlogging, it should be transplanted into fresh soil, after removing the affected roots.

Types and varieties of myrtle with photos and names

Common myrtle (Myrtus communis)

This species is most often grown indoors. It has a small branching trunk. Its bark is covered with layered reddish-brown scales. The oval-lanceolate foliage is colored green. It has a glossy sheen and leathery surface. The foliage exudes a pleasant scent.

The flowers of this species have protruding stamens and are white or light pink in color. Later, dark red berries are formed in their place. The flowering period lasts almost all summer. The Tarentina variety is popular. It is a more compact plant, producing more berries than the original species. Moreover, their size is smaller. There is also a variegated form, the leaves of which have a light border at the edges.

Lush myrtle (Myrtus apiculata)

This species may look like a tree or shrub with a layered brown bark. The trunk under the bark scales is colored in light colors. The foliage has a rich green color and a matte surface. Single flowers are white. They appear in the second half of summer. The dark berries that form in their place are considered edible.

Myrtus chequen

It is a tree with shiny green foliage. The edges of each plate are slightly wrinkled. This type is considered the most persistent of all.

Ralph's myrtle (Myrtus ralfii)

The species forms a bush with a straight trunk. It has pinkish flowers that turn into red berries. They can be eaten. There is a variegated form of this species. Its foliage has a cream-colored border around the edges.

Useful properties of myrtle

The phytoncidal effect of myrtle is so great that it is capable of destroying not only ordinary bacteria or microbes, but even tubercle bacillus, staphylococcus and streptococcus. The plant can be a good helper in the treatment of colds. But using home myrtle for medicinal purposes, freely using its foliage, can be dangerous to health.


Growing Myrtle ordinary from seeds at home

Common myrtle is an evergreen shrub plant of the myrtle family. In its natural environment, perennial grows in the subtropics, decorative species are popular in Russia. Growing at home is not difficult if you know all the intricacies of plant care. To care properly, you need to know how the bush grows, what are the features of care and prevention from diseases.


Myrtle is a living legend

Myrtle is the hero of ancient Greek legends

Myrtle is described in many legends and legends. In an ancient Arab legend, myrtle grew on the earth from the branch of that plant that Adam took with him from paradise on the day of his exile in order to transfer to our sinful land at least one of those plants that adorned the paradise forever lost to man.

In ancient Greece, myrtle was dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite as a symbol of supreme power and honor, youth and beauty.

In ancient Rome, myrtle was revered as the tree of the goddess Venus. Temples were decorated with myrtle trees, and wild myrtle groves were dedicated to Venus. Both the Romans and Greeks crowned the bride's head with a myrtle wreath. The emperors of Rome steamed in baths with myrtle brooms.

Myrtle flowers. Photo: Jeff Reimer and Jyllian Smith

In the Baltic States, there was a custom: each girl grew a myrtle tree and on her wedding day put a wreath of its branches on her head. Wine infusion from the fruits of myrtle was considered an elixir of health and vigor, myrtle water was used to give freshness to the skin. A myrtle tree is presented for a wedding as a symbol and wish of happiness.

In the Ipatiev Monastery, there is a fresco depicting Christ presenting the myrtle branches of the Mother of God.

In the countries of the East, bouquets and wreaths of myrtle with roses were the favorite wedding decorations.

In England, the bride was presented with a bouquet of orange and myrtle flowers.


Myrtle - gardening


In short, this site will be useful for a gardener, summer resident, gardener.

Amateur gardening is an additional source of not only food, but also diversifies recreation, communication of people with the wonderful world of plants and nature in general.

This site is designed for the reader who is not well informed about the cultivation of fruit plants. Therefore, it more or less briefly describes the various methods of obtaining and using the crop.

The introductory sections provide quantitative data on the most valuable components of fruits and berries and provide basic concepts about the biology and physiology of fruit plants. In the sections “Harvest», «Fruit storage"And"Methods for harvesting fruits and berries for the winter»Summarized the questions equally affecting physiology pome fruit, stone fruit and berry breeds... In chapter "Organization of the territory of a garden plot or estate with a garden»Illustrated various placement projects garden and vegetable garden in areas of different sizes. Attention is also paid to the issues of drainage of swampy, low-lying garden plots. Subsection "Shaped garden"Introduces amateur gardeners to the principles of shaped gardening, which serves not only decorative purposes, but also contributes to increasing the yield of fruit trees and more efficient use of the garden area.

In chapter "Cultivation of fruit plants»Briefly describes the garden tools used when growing fruit plants... In the subsection "Growing seedlings of fruit species»Set out and illustrated the main techniques and methods for the cultivation of rootstocks, methods of growing them, including containers. Below is a brief description zoned varieties of fruit and berry species.

In the sections “Pome breeds», «Stone breeds», «Walnut breeds», «Berry breeds"And"Outdoor ornamental plants»Specific aspects are highlighted plant cultivation.

Particular attention is paid to issues cultivation of rare fruit species - chaenomeles, shepherdia, loch, irgi, actinidia etc.

Finally, there are extensive annexes containing useful information about the features cutting and preserving flowers for bouquets, the composition of mineral and organic fertilizers, biological methods pest and disease control, the ratio between the weight and the measure of fruit, cultivation methods spicy-aromatic plants and much more. The site "Gardener" is provided with a dictionary of basic terms, gardening calendar.

We express our hope that the site will provide readers with real help in creating a cozy fruit-bearing garden.


About home myrtle

Myrtle is an indoor plant that has long been familiar to many flower growers. His evergreen leathery leaves have a shine, and when the plant blooms, a delicate aroma spreads around the room. This delicate plant comes from Myrtle. The Mediterranean grows wild in the subtropics, there are many species of it.

The fruits of this are even eaten by plants. Home myrtle has been grown for hundreds of years; this tree grows one meter in height. People who decided to grow myrtle at home, its properties are described by some. ambiguously consider it a symbol of health and others, beauty prefer to use it in a variety of conditions.

In the rituals of the apartment, the myrtle grows well, it is even possible, the formation of its crown so that the tree has an attractive appearance.

Myrtle grows well at home in rooms that are well ventilated, the humidity is quite high. In the summer, it is better to take the myrtle out into the sun, on the balcony, as he loves fresh air. In the spring myrtle period can be transplanted, if this plant is young, then every adult can transplant it, and the plants are transplanted once a year two years. When transplanting, it is necessary to take into account the pot in which it is necessary to put a drainage layer.


Watch the video: Moaning Myrtle - Harry Potter